Christian Chefs International Fats & Oils Descriptions and Uses
Smoking Points (below)
Vegetable oils (usually blended) flavored with
real or artificial butter flavor for use on griddles. Hydrogenated shortening used for baking goods, pastries.
Canola Oil (Rapeseed oil)
A light, golden-colored oil, similar to safflower oil. Low in saturated fat. Extracted from the seeds of a plant in the turnip family (the same plant as the vegetable broccoli rabe). Used in salads and cooking, mostly in the Mediterranean region and India; also used in margarine and blended vegetable oils.
A heavy, nearly colorless oil extracted from
fresh coconuts. Used primarily in blended oils and shortenings. Used primarily in prepared, processed, packaged foods.
A mild-flavored refined oil. It is medium-yellow colored, inexpensive, and versatile.
This pale-yellow oil is extracted from seed of the cotton plant. Used for frying.
Blended oils or shortenings (usually based on
processed corn or peanut oils) designed for high smoke point and long fry life. May be liquid or solid at room temperature.
This light, medium-yellow, aromatic oil is a by-product of wine making. It is used in salads and some cooking and in the manufacture of margarine.
Solid animal fat. May be treated to neutralize flavor.
Oil varies in weight and may be pale-yellow to
deep-green depending on fruit used and processing. Cold-pressed olive oil,
is superior in flavor to refined. Oil from the first pressing, called
"virgin" olive oil is the most flavorful. Also classified according to
acidity: extra virgin, superfine, fine, virgin, and pure, in ascending
degree of acidity. "Pure" olive oil, and that labeled just "olive oil" may be a combination of cold-pressed and refined oil; suitable for cooking. Click HERE to view an in depth article published by CCF on Olive Oils
Vegetable oils (usually blended) packaged in pump or aerosol sprays for lightly coating pans and griddles.
A pale-yellow refined oil, with a very subtle
scent and flavor. Some less-refined types are darker with a more pronounced peanut flavor. These are used primarily in Asian cooking.
A golden-color oil with a light texture. Made
from a plant that resembles the thistle. Usually refined.
Mild flavored vegetable oils blended for use in salad dressings, mayonnaise, etc.
Two types: a light, very mild, Middle Eastern type and a darker Asian
type pressed from toasted sesame seeds. Asian sesame oil may be light
or dark brown. The darker oil has a more pronounced sesame flavor
and aroma. Asian sesame oil has a low smoke point so it is used primarily
as a flavoring rather than in cooking.
Blended oil solidified using various processes, including whipping in
air and hydrogenation. Designed for plasticity and mild flavor. May have
real or artificial butter flavor added. Usually emulsified to enable
absorption of more sugar in baked goods. May contain animal fats unless
labeled "vegetable shortening."
A fairly heavy oil with a pronounced flavor and aroma. More soybean
oil is produced than any other type. Used in most blended vegetable oils
A light, odorless and nearly flavorless oil pressed from sunflower
seeds. Pale yellow and versatile.
Made by blending several different refined oils. Designed to have a
mild flavor and a high smoke point.
A medium-yellow oil with a nutty flavor and
aroma. Cold-pressed from dried walnuts. More perishable than most other oils; should be used soon after purchase. Used primarily in salads. (Other nut oils include almond, hazelnut, and peanut above.)
Coatings, confectionary, shortening
Frying, salad dressings, shortening
Margarine, salad dressings, shortening
Baking, cooking, specialty items
Cooking, salad dressings
Frying, margarine, salad dressings, shortening
Margarine, mayonnaise, salad dressings
Shortening, emulsified vegetable
Baking, frying, shortening
Margarine, salad dressings, shortening
Cooking, margarine, salad dressings, shortening
*: The smoke point of any oil will be reduced after it is used for cooking. Temperatures are approximate.
The New Professional Chef, 6th edition * 1996,
by The Culinary Institute of America,
published by John Wiley & Sons
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